Nato has condemned Russia's move to strengthen its nuclear arsenal, saying it amounted to "nuclear sabre-rattling" and was "unjustified" and "dangerous".
President Vladimir Putin said Russia would put more than 40 new intercontinental ballistic missiles into service this year.
It is part of a wide-reaching programme to modernise the country's military.
The move comes after the US proposed increasing its military presence in Nato states in Eastern Europe where tensions are high over Russia's role in the conflict in eastern Ukraine.
Nato Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said that the statement from Mr Putin was "confirming the pattern and behaviour of Russia over a period of time - we have seen Russia is investing more in defence in general and in its nuclear capability in particular".
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